The Pennsy Modeler is a celebration and collection of information about railroads of Pennsylvania.

The majority of the site pertains to the Pennsylvania Railroad and represents a sequel to the Keystone Crossings web site which was retired several years ago.

Under the Other Railroads of Pa menu you will find information about Norfolk Southern, Amtrak, and other railroads of Pennsylvania. Within the blogs you will also find information about fallen flags from Pennsylvania.


The following are the most prevalent Norfolk Southern heavy diesel locomotives in use as of 2021, summarized from Chris Toth's excellent Norfolk Southern Diesel Locomotive Roster.

Rough Quantity Notes HO Model



9915The GE Dash 9-44CW is a 4,400 hp road switcher diesel-electric locomotive. Keeping in tradition with GE's locomotive series nicknames beginning with the "Dash 7" of the 1970s, the C44-9W was dubbed the "Dash 9" upon its debut in 1993.

Originally rated at 4,000 hp re-rated to 4,400 hp in 2013–2014.

The railroad plans to upgrade all of its Dash 9–40CW units to AC44C6M.

Athearn Genesis




 4278The GE AC44C6M is a 4,400-horsepower diesel locomotive that was built by GE Transportation Systems, and rebuilt by GE, American Motive Power, Inc., and Norfolk Southern's Juniata and Roanoke Shops, starting in September 2015. The AC44C6M retains the 16-cylinder 7FDL-16 prime mover used in the core locomotive prior to rebuilding, but features GE's alternating current 5GEB13B7 traction motors. Externally, the rebuilds have received new wide-nosed cabs and a new front hood section of the same design as on the ES44AC, while retaining the underframe and engine and radiator compartments of the original Dash 9 units. Internally, AC44C6M features a new under-floor air conditioner, cab signals, LSL, DPU systems, PTC, and ECP braking ability, a significant technological improvement from the GE Dash 9-40C units.

Norfolk Southern Railway (NS) is a significant operator of this model. All 124 of their remaining Dash 9-40C units, numbered 8764–8888 (excluding 8798, which was wrecked in 2018) were rebuilt from 2015 to 2018 and numbered 4000-4124.

The railroad plans to also upgrade all of its Dash 9–40CW units to the same standard.

4000-4005 painted in special DC to AC traction paint schemes (see Norfolk Southern).

Athearn Genesis (including DC to AC scheme) 

Likely to come from

220 7647 The GE ES44DC (Evolution Series, 4400 HP, DC traction) replaced the Dash 9-44CW model in the General Electric catalogue.

Athearn Genesis



4011The GE ES44AC GEVO (Evolution Series, 4400 HP, AC traction) replaced the AC4400CW model in the General Electric catalogue.

Units 8025, 8098-8105, and 8114 painted in special heritage schemes (see Norfolk Southern Heritage Locomotives). (including Heritage schemes) (8102 on order)

Broadway Limited

Bachmann (including Heritage schemes)

InterMountain (including Heritage schemes) 



 1036The EMD SD70ACe is the successor to the SD70MAC with design changes to comply with emission standards. The engine fires with 15% lower internal pressure to improve emissions and features fewer internal components in the inverter.

Units 1065-1074 are painted in special heritage schemes (see Norfolk Southern Heritage Locomotives).

Athearn Genesis (including Heritage schemes)

MTH tooling was acquired by

136  7035The EMD/NS SD60E are rebuilt SD60 units with NS-designed widenose and cab. Athearn Genesis (including "Honor Our Veterans" and "First Responders")



3621The GE ET44AC Tier 4 GEVO (Evolution Series Tier 4, 4400 HP, AC traction) replaces the ES44AC model.
(3677 on order)




 7320The EMD SD70ACU was first built by EMD and later rebuilt by Norfolk Southern. It is originally an SD90MAC (or better known as a SD9043MAC) that has been rebuilt to renew its electrical components and replace the cab with the new EMD Phase-II cab to comply with the most recent safety requirements.

Many units pending retirement/sale/disposition.

Athearn Genesis


  • All EMD SD80MAC were sold in February 2020.
  • All EMD SD90MAC have been rebuilt as SD70ACU.


Heritage Locomotives

Norfolk Southern has honored its predecessor railroads during 2012, its 30th anniversary year, by painting 20 new locomotives in commemorative schemes that reflect the heritage of those predecessors.

Since the 1820s, hundreds of railroad companies were built, merged, reorganized, and consolidated into what eventually became Norfolk Southern, itself created from the consolidation of Southern Railway (SR) and Norfolk and Western Railway (NW) in 1982. In 1999, Norfolk Southern expanded the scope of its heritage with its acquisition of a portion of Conrail (CR). The heritage locomotives represent most of the railroads that played significant roles in Norfolk Southern's history. The first unit, Conrail 8098, rolled out of Altoona, Pa., March 15, and the final one, Lackawanna 1074, rolled out of Muncie, Ind., on June 27.

Each paint scheme was modified to fit contemporary locomotives while staying as true as possible to the original designs. Norfolk Southern employees in Altoona and Chattanooga, Tenn., painted GE ES44AC locomotives, while the EMD SD70ACe units were painted at Progress Rail Services' facility in Muncie, Ind. The heritage locomotives are now hauling freight across Norfolk Southern's 20,000-mile, 22-state network.


Central of Georgia Railway (SR, GE) was formed in 1833 to connect Macon, Ga., with Savannah, completing a rail link between Chattanooga and the port. It was famed for two passenger trains named after prize-winning race horses, the Nancy Hanks and the Man O’ War.







Central Railroad of New Jersey (CR, EMD) was the first American railroad to have its employees wear uniforms, and in 1892, one of its locomotives set a world speed record of 105 mph.







Conrail (GE) was created by the U.S. government in 1976 from the bankrupt Penn Central, Lehigh & Hudson River, Erie Lackawanna, Central Railroad of New Jersey, Lehigh Valley, Reading and Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Lines, becoming the largest railroad at the time, with 34,000 route miles.







Delaware, Lackawanna and Western (CR, EMD) was created in 1849 to connect the rich anthracite coalfields of the Lackawanna Valley of Pennsylvania to northern New Jersey. A hurricane in 1955 knocked the railroad out of operation for a month, with the resulting financial difficulties forcing it to merge with the Erie Railroad in 1960 to formthe Erie Lackawanna Railroad.







Erie Railroad (CR, EMD) was key to economic development along the Southern Tier, which includes Binghamton and Elmira, N.Y. In 1851, Secretary of State Daniel Webster, wrapped in a blanket and clutching a bottle of rum, was strapped to a rocking chair on an open flatcar so he could ride the just-completed railroad.







Illinois Terminal Railroad (NW, EMD) began life as the Illinois Traction System in 1896 as an interurban electric railroad in central and southern Illinois. Hit by the Great Depression, it was reorganized as the Illinois Terminal in 1937 and attempted to survive as a passenger railroad until relinquishing that business in 1956, when it was acquired by a consortium of railroads. It was operated as a freight railroad until acquired by NW in 1982.






Interstate Railroad (SR, GE) was incorporated in 1896 to serve southwestern Virginia coalfields. Despite its name, it operated entirely within Virginia. It was acquired by Southern in 1961.








Lehigh Valley Railroad (CR, GE) was built to haul coal, replacing water transport down the Lehigh River, and was known as the Route of the Black Diamond.








Monongahela Railway (CR, GE) was created in 1901 as a joint venture of the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad to haul coal out of Pennsylvania and West Virginia, with its base of operations in Brownsville, Penn. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad acquired a one-third stake in it in 1927. It was merged into Conrail in 1993. The lines of the former Monongahela continue to serve a vital coal-producing region today.






New York Central Railroad (CR, EMD) was organized from 10 roads paralleling the Erie Canal between Albany and Buffalo, N.Y., and became known as the “Water Level Route.” Today, the former NYC line between Cleveland and Chicago is the busiest on the NS system, with more than 100 freight trains daily.







New York, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad(NW, GE) was known commonly as the Nickel Plate Road, a moniker it acquired when the Norwalk (Ohio) Chronicle referred to it in 1881 as “the great New York and St. Louis double track, nickel plated railroad,” supposedly indicative of its solid financial backing.







Norfolk Southern Railway (SR, EMD) (not to be confused with today’s Norfolk Southern) was a line serving southeast Virginia and northeast North Carolina, chartered in 1883 and acquired by Southern Railway in 1974.







Norfolk & Western Railway (GE) originated as City Point Railroad, a nine-mile road between Petersburg and City Point, Va., in 1836. Following numerous mergers and acquisitions, it became the Norfolk & Western in 1881.







Penn Central (CR, EMD) The Penn Central Transportation Company was created in 1968 from the merger of the New York Central and the Pennsylvania Railroad, and the New York, New Haven and Hartford was added shortly afterward. Penn Central formed the core of Conrail when Conrail was created in 1976.







Pennsylvania Railroad (CR, GE), incorporated in 1846, billed itself as the “Standard Railroad of the World” and was for many years the largest American railroad by tonnage and revenues. PRR opened the Horseshoe Curve railroad engineering marvel; carried President Lincoln to his inauguration; implemented the “line and staff” organizational structure used by business today; built Pennsylvania Station in Manhattan; and electrified the route between New York and Washington, among its many achievements.





Reading Company (CR, EMD) was one of the first railroads built in America and built its fortune hauling coal. It featured the first iron railroad bridge in America.








Savannah & Atlanta Railway (SR, EMD) began life as the Brinson Railway in 1906, slowly expanding from Savannah toward the Northwest. It was consolidated with other small railroads to become the Savannah & Atlanta in 1917. Central of Georgia bought the S&A in 1951.







Southern Railway (GE) originated as the South Carolina Canal and Rail Road Company in 1827. On Christmas Day, 1830, it put into service the nation's first regularly scheduled steam passenger train, "The Best Friend of Charleston." Southern was incorporated in 1894 from the reorganization and consolidation of numerous predecessors, and absorbed another 68 railroad companies over the next six years.






Virginian Railway (NW, EMD) was the only railroad created through the capital and credit of one man, oil magnate Henry Huttleston Rogers. After building a short line, the Deepwater Railway, to haul coal out of West Virginia and then being blocked by the bigger railroads, he created another railroad, the Tidewater Railway, to reach Norfolk, Va., then combined the two into the Virginian in 1907. It was acquired by N&W in 1959.






Wabash Railroad (NW, EMD) was formed in 1877 and served the central U.S. It was acquired by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1927 and leased to Norfolk & Western in 1960. In 1991, N&W, by then part of Norfolk Southern, purchased the Wabash outright. Made famous by the 1904 song “Wabash Cannonball,” there was in fact no such train by that name until 1949.


Triple Crown is a subsidiary of Norfolk Southern, created to provide Roadrailer services.

With a hub at Fort Wayne, in 2011 routes extended to Minneapolis (through Chicago), Kansas City (through St. Louis), Toronto (through Detroit), Jacksonville (through Atlanta), and Bethlehem (through Harrisburg).

In 2015, routes were reduced to just autopart service between Detroit and Kansas City.


  • 1956: C&O Railvans begin testing
  • 1957: NYC Flexi-Vans begin testing
  • 1958: Flexi-Vans enter revenue service
  • 1959: Railvans enter revenue service
  • 1961: Railvan name changed to RoadRailer
  • 1969: Original RoadRailers out of service
  • 1974: Flexi-Vans out of service
  • 1978: Bi-Modal Corp. introduces its 45-foot RoadRailer
  • 1986: Triple Crown service established
  • 2004: RoadRailer service peaks with 9,000n trailers in service
  • 2015: Triple Crown reduces service to Detroit-Kansas City
RoadRailer Models
Description Notes HO Model
CouplerMate End-of-train bogie. Bowser
RoadRailer Platewall Trailer   Bowser
RoadRailer Side Door Trailer   Bowser
RoadRailer Duraplate Trailer   Bowser
RoadRailer Smooth Wall Trailer   Bowser


Mark Description
BTTX Bi-level rack
CTTX Auto rack.
DTTX Double-stack well car.
ETTX Tri-level auto rack.
FTTX Equipped to carry automobile or truck frames.
ITTX Saddleback flat for carrying trucks.
JTTX Miscellaneous Service
RTTX Tri-Level Rack
TTBX Bi-Level Rack
TTCX Container-only.
TTDX Military Equipment
TTRX Tri-Level Rack
TTX 2-Hitch TOFC



  • 1978: Santa Fe's Fuel Foilers enter service
  • 1981: 4-Runner skeleton cars enter service
  • 1982: Impack trailer-only cars debut
  • 1983: Front Runner single-platform skeleton cars debut
  • 1987: TTX receives container-only spines
  • 1988: All-purpose sping cars enter service
  • 1993: 53-foot AP spines begin arriving
  • 1997: 57-foot, Twin-28 AP spines enter service


  • Bethlehem Steel Car (BSC) sold to Johnstown America (JAC) in 1992.
TTX Spine and Skeleton Car Fleet
Model Reporting Mark TTX Class Qty Builder Notes Years Active HO Scale Model
Skeleton Cars
 4-Runner TTFX  ALF40 101 ACF First car completely designed by TTX. 1981-2000


Front Runner

  BLF10 250 BSC   1985-  
  CLF10 380 PC&F   1984-  
TTUX  HLF200 1 TTX   1983-  
  OLF10 200 Portec   1984-  
  PLF100 21 P-S   1984-  
  RLF10 295 Trinity   1984-  
RLF10A 800 Trinity   1986-  
TTUX  TLF10 745 Thrall   1984-  
  TLF10A 200 Thrall   1984-  
TTOX  ULF10 250 United American   1984-  
TTUX  YLF10 200 Hyandai   1986-  
  TTLX BLF50 200 Itel/BSC   1988-  
  UTLX ILF50 1 Itel/FMC   1982-  
  UTLX ILF50A 20 Itel/FMC   1983-  
  UTLX ILF50B 75 Itel/FMC   1984  
  UTLX TLF50 1 Thrall   1982-  
  UTLX TLF50A 20 Thrall   1984-  
  TTLX TLF51 200 Thrall   1989-  
NTTX Container-Only Spine Cars
   NTTX BSF50 28 BSC   1987-  
  NTTX  BSF50A 40 BSC   1987-  
  NTTX  BSF50B 22 BSC   1987-  
  NTTX  BSF50C 80 BSC   1988-  
   NTTX BSF50D 30 BSC   1988-  
  NTTX  BSF50P 1 BSC   1987-  
  NTTX  RSF50 60 Trinity   1987-  
  NTTX  RSF50A 15 Trinity   1988-  
  NTTX  RSF50B 65 Trinity   1988-  
   NTTX RSF50P 4 Trinity   1986-  
  NTTX  YSF50 10 Hyandai   1988-  
  NTTX  YSF50P 1 Hyandai   1987-  
TTAX 48-Foot All-Purpose Spine Cars
  TTAX BAF55 200 BSC   1989-  
  TTAX BAF55A 325 BSC   1990-  
  TTAX BAF55B 245 BSC   1990-  
  TTAX JAF55 100 JAC   1992-  
  TTAX JAF55A 30 JAC   1992-  
  TTAX JAF55B 370 JAC   1992-  
  TTAX GAF55 25 Gunderson   1991  
  TTAX GAF55B 100 Gunderson   1990-  
  TTAX RAF55 757 Trinity   1989-  
  TTAX RAF55B 230 Trinity   1991-  
  TTAX RAF55C 50 Trinity   1992-  Bowser
  TTAX RAF55D 321 Trinity   1992-  Walthers
  TTAX RAF55E 19 Trinity   1993-  Walthers
  TTAX TAF55 505 Thrall   1990-  
TTAX 53-Foot All-Purpose Spine Cars
  TTAX JAF53 331 JAC   1993-  
  TTAX JAF53A 1,074 JAC   1993-  
  TTAX JAF53P 1 JAC   1993-  
  TTAX NAF33 250 NSC   2005-  
  TTAX NAF53 296 NSC   1995-  
  TTAX NAF53A 4 NSC   1995-  
  TTAX RAF33 200 Trinity   1998-  Bowser
  TTAX RAF53 502 Trinity   1993-  
  TTAX RAF53A 658 Trinity   1993-  
  TTAX RAF53B 500 Trinity   1995-  
  TTAX RAF53C 240 Trinity   1998-  
  TTAX RAF53P 2 Trinity   1993-  
All-Purpose Spine Cars
for Double 28-foot Trailers and 53-foot Containers
  TTRX JRF30P 1 JAC TOFC-only. 1994-  
  TTRX NAF30 1,150 NSC   1998-  
  TTRX NAF30A 500 NSC   2004-  
  TTRX RAF30 747 Trinity   1998-  
  TTRX RAF30A 300 Trinity   1998-  
  TTRX RAF30E 70 Trinity   1998-  
  TTRX RRF30P 2 Trinity TOFC-only. 1994-  
  TTAX RAF50P 1 Trinity 5-unit "Super Spine". 1991-  



  • 1953: First experimental Clejan cars enter service on New Haven.
  • 1955: Pennsylvania receives first 75-foot cars.
  • 1956: ACF introduces the Model A triler hitch.
  • 1956: New Haven receives 80-foot Clejan flatcars.
  • 1958: Trailer Train receives first 85-foot flatcars.
  • 1964: Trailer Train receives first 89-foot flatcars.
  • 1968: First ACF flush-deck all-purpose flatcars enter service.
  • 1987: TTX converts first Long Runner flatcars for service.


TTX Flatcar Fleet
Model Reporting Mark TTX Class Qty Builder Notes Years Active HO Scale Model
50-foot Flatcars:
  TTX  F30D  86 PRR Ex-PRR leased to TTX. 1956-1991  Rapido
75-foot Flatcars:


200 BSC Ex-PRR leased from Van-Car Corp. 1955-1989  
  TTX F39A 250 PRR Ex-PRR. 1955-1989  
  TTX F39B 50 PRR Ex-PRR. 1955-1989  
  TTX F39B 20 PRR Ex-WAB. 1955-1989   
  TTX F39B 10 CB&Q Ex-CB&Q. 1955-1989  
  TTX F39C 300 PRR First cars built new for TTX and first TTX cars built with ACF Model A trailer hitches. 1957-1989 Walthers
85-foot Flatcars:
    F85A 3,498 ACF   1958-  
    50 ACF Ex-C&O acquired April 1963. 1959-  
    127 ACF Ex-Merchants Despatch acquired December 1966. 1960-  
    38 ACF Ex-Merchants Despatch acquired December 1969. 1960-  
    F85B 3,271 P-S      Athearn    
    50 P-S Ex-C&O acquired April 1963. 1959-
    10 P-S Ex-WM acquired October 1963. 1963-
    20 P-S Ex-FEC acquired May 1964. 1959-
    308 P-S Ex-Pullman Transport Leasing acquired August 1967. 1962-
    F85C 2,288 BSC    1963-  
    99 BSC Ex-EL acquired April 1964. 1961-  
    F85D 251 ACF   1963-  
    F85E 151 P-S   1964-  
    35 P-S Ex-Pullman Transport Leasing acquired August 1967. 1963-  
    F85F 219 BSC Wabcopac truck-mountd brake cyliners. 1964-  
    171 BSC   1964-  
   GTTX G85 614 GAC Leased to Railway Express Agency and equipped with steam lines for use in passenger trains. Least effective 11/15/62 for ten years. 1961- Walthers
    99 GAC Ex-EL acquired April 1964. 1961-  
    25 GAC Ex-UP acquired April 1965. 1961-  
    10 GAC Ex.WM acquired 1963. 1960-  
    G85A 1,599 GAC   1963-  
87-foot Flatcars:
    F87 123 P-S Low-Level, Raised-Side-Sill with standard draft gear. 1960  
89-foot Flatcars:
    F89 434 ACF Low-Level, Raised-Side-Sill with standard draft gear. 1961-  
    F89A 1,470 P-S Low-Level, Raised-Side-Sill with standard draft gear. 1961-  
    14 P-S Ex-WM acquirred October 1963. 1961-  
    F89B 352 ACF Low-Level, Raised-Side-Sill with standard draft gear. 1962-  
    F89C 480 P-S Low-Level, Raised-Side-Sill with standard draft gear. 1963-  
    F89D 299 ACF Low-Level, Raised-Side-Sill with standard draft gear. 1963-  
F89E 2,647 P-S Raised-side-sill with standard draft gear. 1963-  
F89F 5,582 BSC Raised-side-sill with standard draft gear. 1963- Athearn
  TTX F89G 910 ACF Raised-side-sill with standard draft gear. 1964-  
  TTX F89J 1,727 ACF Raised-side-sill with standard draft gear. 1966- Atlas
BLMA Models
  TTAX F89KH 1 ACF All-Purpose, Standard-Level, Flush Deck. 1967-  
    F89M 381 P-S Low-Level, Raised-Side-Sill with standard draft gear. Built as class F87. 1960-  
  TTX F89V 200 P-S Raised-side-sill with standard draft gear. 1968-  
  TTX F89X 150 BSC Raised-side-sill with standard draft gear. 1968-  
F89EH 299 P-S Raised-side with EOCC units. 1963-  
F89FH 3,790 BSC Raised-side with EOCC units. 1963-  
F89GH 810 ACF Raised-side with EOCC units. 1963-  
  TTX F89L 1 BSC All-Purpose, Standard-Level, Flush Deck. 1967-  
  TTX F89N 1 P-S All-Purpose, Standard-Level, Flush Deck. 1967-  
  FTTX F89RH 99 ACF   1967-  Walthers
  FTTX F89SH 11 ACF   1967-  
  TTX F89V          
F89XH 626 BSC Raised-side with EOCC units. 1967-  
    G89  100   GAC 36 were equipped with four hitches for XTTX service. 1965-  
  GTTX  G89A 1 GAC  All-Purpose, Standard-Level, Flush Deck. 1967-  
  TTX ASF10 1,576 ACF  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1968-  
  FTTX ASF10F 70 ACF  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1972-  
  TTBX ASH10 69 ACF  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1971-  
  TTAX ASH10A 1,184 ACF  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1968-  
  TTCX ASH10C 120 ACF  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1979-  
  TTAX ASH20A 512 ACF  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1973-  
  TTAX ASH22 300 ACF  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1979-  
  TTAX ASH80A 100 ACF  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1979-  
  TTAX ASH90A   ACF  Converted from ASF10. 1968-  
2,906  BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1968-  
  TTX BSF11   BSC  Former units of TTEX abd RTTX multi-unit carriers. Various  
1,574  BSC   Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1973-  
  TTX  BSF20  475  BSC   Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1974-  
  TT_X BSH10 54 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1968-  
  TTDX BSH10D 8 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1968-  
  FTTX BSH10F 213 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1968-  
  ITTX BSH10I 92 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1968-  
  TT_X BSH11 2,537 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1968-  
  TTDX BSH11D 18 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1969-  
  FTTX BSH11F 570 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1968-  
  ITTX BSH11I 379 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1968-  
  TT_X BSH12 462 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1973-  
  TTAX BSH12A 290 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1972-  
  TTCX BSH12C 80 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1973-  
  FTTX BSH12F 13 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1973-  
  ITTX BSH12I 83 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1973-  
  TT_X BSH13 130 BSC Standard-Level, Flush Deck Purchased from SP. 1979-  
  TT_X BSH14 103 BSC Standard-Level, Flush Deck Purchased from UP. 1979-  
  TT_X BSH15 101 BSC Standard-Level, Flush Deck Purchased from Greenbrier. 1979-  
  TT_X BSH20 22 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1973-  
  TTAX BSH20A 710 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1973-  
  TTCX BSH20C 200 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1973-  
  FTTX BSH20F 78 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1973-  
  TT_X BSH21 249 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1975-  
  TT_X BSH21A 215 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1977-  
  TT_X BSH21B 165 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1977-  
  TTAX BSH22 290 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1974-  
  TTAX BSH22A 3,585 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1977-  
  TTAX BSH22B 25 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1977-  
  TTAX BSH22C 1,580 BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1979-  
  TT_X BSMH11   BSC  Standard-Level, Flush Deck Converted from BSF11. 1968-  
 850 P-S  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1969-  
  FTTX  PSF11F  34  P-S   Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1973-  
  TTX  PSF20  2,350  P-S   Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1973-  
  TT_X PSH10 443 P-S  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1970-  
  TTAX PSH10A 976 P-S  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1968-  
  TTCX PSH10C 315 P-S  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1968-  
  FTTX PSH10F 226 P-S  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1970-  
  ITTX PSH10I 1 P-S  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1970-  
  TT_X  PSH11 655 P-S  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1968-  
  TTAX PSH11A 150 P-S  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1973-  
  FTTX PSH11F 19 P-S  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1973-  
  TT_X  PSH20 795 P-S  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1973-  
  TTAX PSH20A 675 P-S  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1973-  
  FTTX PSH20F 51 P-S  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1974-  
  TT_X PSH21 660 P-S  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1977-  
  TTAX PSH22 7,352 P-S  Standard-Level, Flush Deck 1975-  
  TT_X PSH23 8 P-S  Standard-Level, Flush Deck. Purchased from GTW. 1973-  
  TTAX  PSH90A   P-S  Standard-Level, Flush Deck. Converted from 300 PSF20. 1973-  








Present TTX Car Classification System

The following car classification was adopted in 1968 and took until 1974 to be completely adopted. It consists of six characters.

Character: 1 2 3 4 5 6
Example: T W G 5 0 P


Interpretation (partial listing)
Character: Meaning: Examples:
1  Car Builder

A = American Car & Foundry (ACF)
B = Bethlehem Steel
C = Pacific Car & Foundry
D = Difco
F = FMC Marine & Rail
G = Gunderson, Greenbrier
J = Johnstown America and Freight Car America
N = National Steel Car
P = Pullman-Standard
R = Trinity Industries
T = Thrall Manufacturing
U = United American Car
W = Berwick Forge & Fabricating
Y = Hyundai

2 Deck Height D = Depressed-center flatcar
L = Low level (less than 39 inches)
S = Standard level (39 inches or higher)
Other A = All-purpose
M = Integrated Multi-level car and superstructure
R = Auto rack superstructure
T = RoadRailer bogie
W = Double-stack well car
3 Draft Gear F = M901 or M901E friction draft gear
G = M901G high-capacity friction draft gear
H = Hydraulic end-of-car cushioning
Other A = All-purpose
B = Bi-level rack or multi-level car
T = Tri-level rack or multi-level car
U = Uni-level rack or multi-level car
4, 5  Design No. For 89-foot Standard-Level Flatcars:
10 to 19 = Cars with draft pockets for friction draft gear or specific hydraulic cushioning unit
20 & up = Cars with universal draft pockets
80 = Cars with 39-1/2-inch high deck and wider side sills
90 = Older flush-deck car converted to all-purpose with universal draft pockets
For 89-foot Low-Level Flatcars:
10 to 19 = Flatcar 60-feet over end sills
20 & up = Flush-deck car body with universal draft pockets
For 60- to 73-foot Standard-Level Flatcars:
60 to 62 = Flatcar 60-feet over end sills
64 = Center beam car 64-feet over end sills and 60-foot inside length
71 to 73 = Flatcar 68-feet over end sills with or without end bulkheads
74 = 73-feet inside length center beam car with plate web center beam structure
75 = 73-feet inside length center beam car with diagonal truss center beam structure and 263,000-pounds gross rail load
76 = 73-feet inside length center beam car with diagonal truss center beam structure and 286,000-pounds gross rail load
For Heavy-Duty Flatcars:
Design number = Usable length of loading deck
For Multi-level Cars and Auto Rack Superstructures:
One-digit numbers = Auto rack superstructures
Two-digit numbers = Complete multi-level cars
For Multiple-Unit Cars:
2n = Two-unit cars
3n = Three-unit cars
4n = Four-unit cars
5n = Five-unit cars
Second digit may or may not have a specific meaning

For Articulated Double-Stack Cars:
50 = Cars with 100-ton articulated trucks
51 = Prototype cars built with 100-ton articulated trucks and converted to 125-ton trucks
52 = Cars with 125-ton articulated trucks
53 = (23) 100-ton cars acquired used from APL
53 = Cars with 125-ton trucks and having 53-foot wells

For All-Purpose Spine Cars:
30 = Three-unit 57-foot TTRX car
33 = Three-unit 53-foot TTAX car
53 = Five-unit 53-foot TTAX car
55 = Five-unit 48-foot TTAX car
6  Subclass, if any A = All-purpose
C = Equipped for COFC service
M = Modified from originak construction of car
P = Protoype car


Original Trailer Train Classification System

Cars were assigned classes based on the length of the loading deck.

Character: 1 2 3 4 5 6
Example: F 8 9 C H W



Interpretation (partial listing)
Character: Meaning: Examples:
1 Type of Car

F = Flatcar
G = TOFC car built by GATX

2, 3 Length Length in feet
4 Subclass, if any  
6 Various F = Equipped for auto frame service
M = Modified from original construction of car
P = Equipped to carry pipe
W = Underframe widened for Wide-body auto rack



  • 1977: SP/Sea-Land well car begins testing.
  • 1981: First SP double-stacks enter service.
  • 1983: First Budd/Thrall well cars without bulkheads delivered.
  • 1999: First production 53-foot well cars are delivered.
  • 2003: TTX begins program for shortening 45- and 48-foot wells.
  • 2010: TTX roster almost entirely 40- or 53-foot well platforms.


  • Thrall merged with Trinity in 2001. Thereafter, Thrall designs were marketed through Trinity Rail Group.
  • Gunderson is owned by Greenbrier.
  • All TTX well cars carry the reporting marks DTTX.


TTX Double-Stack Fleet As-Built
Model Well
Qty TTX Class Notes Years Active HO Scale Model
Thrall Car Manufacturing
100-ton Articulated Cars:
Lo-Pac 2000  40' 40' 40' 40' 40' 296


Capable of carrying 48' containers in the top positions. Design licensed from Budd. 1988- InterMountain
  40' 45' 48' 45' 40' 1 TWG50P       
  40' 45' 45' 45' 40' 25 TWG50F    1988-   
  40' 48' 48' 48' 40' 408 TWG50G
  45' 45' 45' 45' 45' 23 TWG50D
  48' 48' 48' 48' 48' 40 TWG50E    1989-   
125-ton Articulated Cars:
  40' 48' 48' 48' 40' 292  TWG52       
  48' 48' 48' 48' 48' 1,381 TWG52A
  53' 53' 53' 53' 53' 1  TWG53P      
  53' 53' 53' 751 TWG33P
Single-Unit COFC-only Cars:
Well Runner 48' 962  TWF10
Drawbar-Connected COFC-only Cars:
  48' 48' 48' 300  TWG30   1991-   
  48' 48' 48' 48' 138  TWG40   1991-   
Single-Unit All Purpose Cars:
  48' 150  TWA10      
Drawbar-Connected All-Purpose Cars:
  48' 48' 48' 116  TWA30      
100-ton Articulated Cars:
Twin-Stack 40' 40' 40' 40' 40' 343 GWG50
End bulkheads to retain upper containers.   InterMountain 
125-ton Articulated Cars:
 Maxi-Stack I 40' 40' 40' 40' 40' 3,214 GWG52
  40' 48' 48' 48' 40' 43 GWG52A       
Maxi-Stack III  48' 48' 48' 48' 48' 2,496 GWG52B
Maxi-Stack V  53' 53' 53' 53' 53' 1 GWG53P       
Maxi-Stack IV  53' 53' 53' 7,680 GWG33
Single-Unit COFC-only Cars:
Husky Stack  48' 875 GWF10     1991- Athearn
Husky Stack   53' 2,130  GWF13   2003-  Rapido 
  56' 101  GWF11      
Drawbar-Connected COFC-only Cars:
  48' 48' 48' 48' 60 GWG40       
Single-Unit All Purpose Cars:
Husky Stack AP  48' 947 GWA10       
Drawbar-Connected All-Purpose Cars:
  48' 48' 48' 873 GWA30       
  48' 48' 48' 48' 200 GWA40       
Pullman Standard / Trinity Industries
100-ton Articulated Cars:
BackPacker  40' 40' 40' 40' 40' 71 RWG50
   1986- ScaleTrains
125-ton Articulated Cars:
  40' 40' 40' 40' 40' 5 RWG52A      
  40' 48' 48' 48' 40' 117 RWG52    1987-   
Backpacker  48' 48' 48' 48' 48' 116 RWG52B
  53' 53' 53' 53' 53' 1        
  53' 53' 53' 1,236 RWG33
Single-Unit COFC-only Cars:
Well Runner  48' 1 RWH10P       
Drawbar-Connected COFC-only Cars:
  53' 53' 53' 160  RWG30      
Single-Unit All Purpose Cars:
  48' 10 RWA10       
National Steel Car (NSC)
125-ton Articulated Cars:
  40' 40' 40' 40' 40' 310  NWG52
  48' 48' 48' 286  NWA33      
Super Stack 53' 53' 53' 53' 53' 1        
  53' 53' 53' 5,428 NWG33A
Single-Unit COFC-only Cars:
  53' 6,190 NWF13
Drawbar-Connected COFC-only Cars:
  48' 48' 48' 744  NWG31   1998-   
  53' 53' 53' 1,022  NWG33      
Drawbar-Connected All-Purpose Cars:
  48' 48' 48' 80 NWA31    1995 Walthers
  48' 48' 48' 48' 120  NWA40      
Freight Car America
125-ton Articulated Cars:
Dynastack 40' 40' 40' 40' 40' 50 NWG52L    2008-  
  53' 53' 53' 100 NWG30      Walthers 
Single-Unit COFC-only Cars:
   53'  1        
Unidentified Builder
  40' 40' 40' 40' 40' 50 JWG52   2013-  
  53' 53' 53'   JWG33   2016-  

TTX Double-Stack Rebuilds

Articulated Cars or Drawbar-Connected COFC-only Cars:
  40' 40' 40' 40' 40  


  40' 40' 40' 40' 40   GW52AM
  40' 40' 40' 40' 40'   RW52M
  40' 40' 40' 40' 40'   NWG32M      
  40' 48' 48' 48' 40'   TWG50K
  48' 48' 48' 1 TWG32C   1992  
Single-Unit COFC-only Cars:
  40'   TWF10F
  1991- Walthers
  40'   GWF10F
  40'   NWF10F
  53'   GW13SF
  1994- Walthers
  53'   NWF13
Single-Unit All Purpose Cars:
  48'   GWA10   1994- Atlas


The position of LEWIS Operator is conducive to remote operations, as are Main Line Crews #1#2#3, and #4.

Several technologies are available to facilitate these operations, as follows:

For the Operator role:

Testing pending...

Zoom is used to provide a remote view of the tower panel and provide remote communications.

Superintendent Tasks: Operator Tasks:
Schedule Zoom call.  
Join Zoom call from Operator's workstation and share screen. Join Zoom call.
Delegate Zoom control of Operator's workstation to remote Operator. Confirm control of Operator's workstation.


For the Main Line Crew roles:

Testing pending...

Crews will use WiThrottle (iOS) or EngineDriver (Android) on a smart phone or tablet to control their train.

Superintendent Tasks: Operator Tasks:
   Join Zoom call and pin Operator's workstation screen to full size so you can see the entire panel.
more to come more to come